Ethical dliemmas in antenatal care

Mary, a 35-year-old woman, presents to the obstetrician during her second pregnancy. She has no relevant non-obstetric history.

Past obstetric history
In her first pregnancy, Mary came into spontaneous labour and progressed rapidly (within three hours) to vaginal delivery.

Following delivery, oxytocin (Syntocinon) 10 IU was administered intramuscularly to promote uterine contraction to reduce post-partum bleeding.

However, there was a 45-minute delay from the neonate's delivery to that of the placenta. The placenta was delivered with controlled