How to pick a 'pain personality'

Australian researchers say they have identified new evidence of a "pain personality" following a review of 120 years of research.

The review published in the Scandinavian Journal of Pain identified two common personality traits in people living with chronic pain; higher levels of harm-avoidance and lower levels of self-directedness.

High harm avoidance refers to a tendency to be fearful, pessimistic, sensitive to criticism and requiring high levels of reassurance.

Low self-directedness often manifests as difficulty with defining and setting