When insulin resistance messes with the mind

Insulin resistance is linked to a rapid decline in cognitive performance, even in people who don’t have type 2 diabetes, according to a 20-year study.

Executive function and memory are particularly vulnerable, the authors say.

The Israeli scientists followed a group of nearly 500 patients with existing cardiovascular disease for more than two decades.

They first assessed the patients' baseline insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), calculated using fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin levels.

Cognitive functions were