Many patients will pay more than $7 fee

The research, which does not account for additional costs associated with decreased Medicare rebates or GPs who choose not to bulk-bill, shows that the co-payment will for many create a far less modest “price signal” than the cost of “two middies of beer”, as Treasurer Joe Hockey put it.

The average impact would increase with patient age, from $35 dollars per child per year to $94 for patients older than 65.

When increased PBS co-payments are included, a young family with two