Anticoagulation and bleeding risk

Answer: The HAS-BLED tool – Each risk factor increases a patient’s annual risk of bleeding:2 Hypertension;* Abnormal renal or liver function; Stroke (history of); Bleeding (history of, predisposition to); Labile INRs (<6 in 10 INRs in therapeutic range);* Elderly (age >65 years); Drugs (antiplatelets, NSAIDS, or alcohol ≥8 units per week).* 

People with AF should not be excluded from anticoagulant therapies solely on the basis of a high risk of bleeding determined using the