Assessing atherosclerosis

Clinical scenario

A 51-year-old man presents for an evaluation. He has embarked on a program of physical fitness and requests a checkup for his heart. He has a strong family history of heart disease, with his father having an MI at age 48. He has no diabetes but has had borderline high cholesterol for many years, with total cholesterol of 5.5 and an LDL of 3.5. He works in the advertising industry and used to smoke but gave up 10 years ago and now smokes socially. He regularly runs on a treadmill for half an hour with