Kidney stones increase risk of renal failure

A study of more than three million people in Canada without end stage disease or pyelonephritis at baseline found that even a single kidney stone episode during 11 years of follow-up doubled the risk of kidney failure and boosted the chance of having chronic kidney disease or doubled serum creatinine.

More than 23,000 patients had at least one kidney stone, with 5333 developing end stage renal disease.

The authors said the absolute increase in the rate of adverse renal outcomes associated with stones was small: the unadjusted rate of end stage