Strongyloidiasis is caused by infection with the nematode strongyloides. 

For practical purposes, most human infections are caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. While an exotic infection, it is presented to illustrate a number of points: 

- some parasitic infections can remain dormant and asymptomatic for years after infection, only to cause serious illness decades later

- immune suppression can lead to overwhelming infection and death, before the diagnosis is even considered

- transplant-associated infection can be due to reactivation or come from an infected donor organ

- diagnosis requires a variety of specimens and techniques

- risk for travellers to endemic areas should be further investigated because of the long term potential risks. 

Strongyloides stercoralis distribution is in most tropical environments, including northern Australia, but also in some sub-tropical and temperate