Why heart failure comorbidities need attention

Symptoms of shortness of breath and fatigue in patients with heart failure are often associated with non-cardiovascular comorbidities, a Swedish study suggests.

The observational, retrospective registry study of 10,500 patients showed that diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and COPD were directly linked with classic heart failure symptoms such as shortness of breath and fatigue, while reduced ejection fraction was not.

Patients with comorbid COPD had the highest prevalence of shortness of breath, fatigue, pain, anxiety or depression, and functional limitations, followed by those with

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