Managing breast swelling in males

Serious causes must be ruled out, but many distressed patients can be reassured.

Excess fatty tissue associated with obesity needs to be differentiated from true gynaecomastia, a condition involving proliferation of the glandular tissue of the breast. 

Clinical investigation aims to identify serious underlying pathology or treatable causes. Gynaecomastia can be distressing for males of any age. If no treatment is indicated, reassurance and normalising the condition can be helpful.

Gynaecomastia is caused by an imbalance in the action of oestrogen and androgens on breast tissue in settings of increased oestrogen