Vulvovaginal atrophy

There are several treatment options available for the uncomfortable symptoms that can occur after menopause.

Reassuringly for most women, if troublesome vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and sweating are experienced at menopause, they will improve over time.

Unfortunately, the opposite is true for menopausal vulvovaginal symptoms.

Physical changes
What physical changes occur in the reproductive system after menopause?

Oestrogen deficiency can have a profound effect on epithelial and connective tissue, particularly in the genitourinary tract where oestrogen receptors are more numerous.

Although transient alterations in vaginal functioning and lubrication may occur during breastfeeding or with the long-term use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception, after menopause such changes become much more common, affecting up to 61% of those over 50.1

Many women will notice a decrease in the size of the labia majora and clitoris, along with

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