Addicted doctors to provide hair samples

Testing will also be expanded to cover pharmaceutical opioids and anaesthetics which are not picked up by standard urine testing for drugs of abuse in Australia and New Zealand.

They include opioids such as fentanyl, hydromorphone, oxycodone, methadone, pethidine, tramadol and other high-risk substances such ketamine, midazolam, propofol and zolpidem.

To date, a practitioner addicted to morphine could avoid detection by switching to another opioid.

Professor Olaf Drummer, of the Victorian Institute of Forensic