An unusual dry cough

Are respiratory symptoms in a man living with HIV/AIDS due to an infection, or something more sinister?
Alina Alikhan

Kwame is a 38-year-old African man who presents with a dry cough and dyspnoea on exertion for 3-4 weeks. Kwame has been on antiretroviral therapy — efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir — for HIV/AIDS for 3.5 years, with no other significant medical or surgical history. Kwame identifies as bisexual and last had unprotected sex with male partners five months previously. 

There is no past history of opportunistic infections and Kwame is consistently adherent with his antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. He is a non-smoker without any illicit drug or alcohol use history, and denies receiving any blood transfusions.