History: Be thankful you've never had to play the urine wheel of fortune

Doctors used to swill patients' pee samples like a fine wine

In the days before the dipstick, doctors had to rely solely on their senses to make a diagnosis, judging the colour, smell and even the taste of their patients’ urine.

Physician, urine, flask
Credit: Wellcome Library

Swilling people’s pee provided a golden opportunity in a time before physicians had the knowledge, technology or freedom to properly examine and diagnose patients.

The archaic urinalysis, known as