Are smokers at increased risk of coronavirus?

While there is mounting evidence that tobacco use may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and more severe COVID-19 outcomes, at the time of writing, a definitive and conclusive relationship has not been established.

However, it is a safe assumption that people who smoke are at higher risk of COVID-19 and its complications, based on emerging studies and established pathophysiology.

There is already good evidence that people who smoke are at increased risk of respiratory infections generally, including