Are smokers at increased risk of coronavirus?

While there is mounting evidence that tobacco use may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and more severe COVID-19 outcomes, at the time of writing, a definitive and conclusive relationship has not been established.

However, it is a safe assumption that people who smoke are at higher risk of COVID-19 and its complications, based on emerging studies and established pathophysiology.

There is already good evidence that people who smoke are at increased risk of respiratory infections generally, including influenza, pneumonia and