Conflict, displacement, exclusion: Hidden ills on refugee road

MOST lifestyle determinants have physical links, such as diet, exercise and sleep. It’s only really since the multinational Interheart study in 2003 that psychological factors such as stress were taken seriously as a disease influence.

Despite the difficulty in measuring it, stress came to be accepted as a determinant of heart disease.

Even more difficult to measure are the less obvious concepts of Meaninglessness, Alienation and Loss of culture or identity (MAL) and their effects on chronic medical conditions. This is