How two 1990s discoveries have led to (some) cured cancers, and a Nobel Prize

'I can't see the advanced cancer on your scans any more,' this GP was able to tell his anxious patient

This year’s award of the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo, for their work in the early 1990s on immune checkpoint proteins CTLA4 and PD1, is a fitting recognition of how their work has led to a seismic shift in the way we treat cancer.

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In a remarkably short time, drugs that inhibit these immune checkpoints (or immune brakes) have transformed the practice of clinical oncology.

Drugs like

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