Bodies aren't just machines, and doctors aren't just mechanics

In the 16th century, French philosopher Rene Descartes moved the body from the sacred to the profane by separating it from the mind. The body thus became a proper object of study by the emerging natural sciences. From anatomy flowed physiology and the birth of what we know as modern medicine. The model of the body as a machine which can be broken and therefore fixed has had great success, unimaginable only 100 years ago.

The problems with this model seem well understood, and are best explained in a

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